Characterization of Damascus steel knives

The steel in this blade was a hypereutectoid, crucible-melted steel that was really quite clean. The principal inclusions were approximately 0.5 to 1.0 μm in diameter. The microstructure consisted of a pearlitic matrix with spheroidized primary cementite in a layered arrangement.

Damascus steel knives, characterization of one Damascus steel sword
A Damascus steel sword has been exhaustively examined to establish its chemistry, microstructure, properties, and something about its processing.
The cementite layers were aligned with amazing regularity with individual layers containing several particles across their widths. The layered cementite distribution was compatible with the deformation of an original equiaxed cementite cellular array having a 400 μm diameter followed by an 85% reduction in thickness on forging. The final heat treatment resulted in a pearlitic matrix with a relatively fine pearlite spacing. The hardness and mechanical properties were measured and found to be those expected for a high carbon steel with a fine pearlitic microstructure.
This work was supported in part by the Science and Humanities Research Institute at Iowa State University, by a grant from Marshalltown Trowel,
We would like to acknowledge helpful discussions with blacksmith A. Pendray concerning the forging of Damascus blades.

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Light emitting display apparatus

A light emitting display apparatus has pixels arranged in rows to display a predetermined image, each of the pixels being composed of red and green, or blue and yellow light emitting diodes, lenses provided on the pixels, each of the lenses horizontally diffusing lights emitted from the red and green, or blue and yellow light emitting diodes, and vertically diverging the lights, a driver for driving the red and green, or blue and yellow light emitting diodes to be turned on in accordance with predetermined light intensities, thereby representing various colors including a white color. In the light emitting display apparatus, therefore, the displayed image is easy to be recognized, the number of the LED COB Track Light and the power consumption are decreased, and the density of pixels is increased. Further, the image information of the white color is displayed without the three original color light emitting diodes, that is, red, green and blue light emitting diodes, and the color of an image information is selectable from a variety of colors which include a white color.
The invention relates to a light emitting display apparatus, and more particularly to, a light emitting display apparatus used for a display such as a type of a standing signboard, structured by LEDs (Light Emitting Diodes), which light colors are blue and yellow, or (bluish-)green and red, layouted at a specific pattern such as a matrix pattern, and displaying an image such as a word character, a numerical character and/or a symbol character by lighting the LEDs to a specific color such as white or other colors by controlling a luminous intensity ratio of blue and yellow, or (bluish-)green and red.
In the conventional light emitting display apparatus, however, there are disadvantages in that the reduction of cost is difficult, the density of pixels is lowered, and the amounts of heat generated and power consumed by the light emitting diodes are large, because each pixel is composed of the red, green and blue light emitting diodes. In addition, a displayed image is hard to be recognized, when a screen is directly radiated by the sun, or the surrounding is bright, because the light intensities of the red, green and blue light emitting diodes are not so high.

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Led Tube Light Fixture including same

An LED lamp has a substantially planar circuit board having two opposed sides, and a plurality of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) grouped to form two LED arrays. The LEDs of one of the two LED arrays are mounted along opposite edges of one of the sides of the circuit board. The LEDs of the other LED array are mounted along opposite edges of the other side of the circuit board.
A light-emitting diode (LED) is a diode that emits light when a current passes through it. A diode is a semiconductor device through which current can pass in only one direction. LEDs are often used as indicator lights, and are also commonly used in computer system “laser” printers and compact disk read only memory (CD-ROM) drives.
LEDs are in general more efficient, last longer, and are more durable than fluorescent and incandescent lamps. In general, Led Tube Light Fixture are about 4 times more efficient at producing light than fluorescent lamps, and approximately 16 times more efficient at producing light than incandescent lamps. Unlike fluorescent and incandescent lamps, LEDs are extremely shock resistant. While an incandescent lamp may produce light for 750 to 2,000 operating hours, and a fluorescent lamp may produce light for 12,000 to 24,000 hours of continuous use, many LEDs can produce light for 100,000 hours of continuous use. For the above reasons, LEDs are generally preferred over fluorescent and incandescent lamps in critical applications.
The present invention provides a lamp having a circuit board having two opposed ends. A plurality of light-emitting diodes LED Flat Panel Ceiling Lights are disposed upon the circuit board. A pair of projections extending outwardly from each of the two opposed ends. The pair of projections are electronically connected to the LEDs.

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Identification clear plastic sleeve

Positive identification of each tube and cable forming integral parts of a complicated mechanism has become practically indispensable.

For example, in a ship or aircraft, it is highly desirable to be able to quickly trace fuel, oil, water and fire extinguisher lines. This is especially true where these and other tubes and pipes converge for passage through a bulkhead or a like area restricted as to space. In view of the fact that the areas through which these lines pass are often contaminated with chemical vapors, moisture, oil and other like substances which have the tendency to adversely affect ordinary materials, a marking must be unusually rugged to withstand such adverse operating conditions.

Our invention relates to identification means and, more particularly, a clear plastic sleeve adapted for bonded encirclement of an object and a method of identifying tubing.

Heretofore, it has been customary to provide markings formed of cellophane strips adhesively attached to the tubing of such an installation. A standard color code or system of markings has been established which makes each tube or article so marked readily identifiable for servicing or repalr as long as the color combination remains attached thereto and discernible. However, it has been found that markings so attached by adhesive are quickly affected by the diluent effect of the aforedescribed foreign substances to which the markings are subjected. The result is that the adhesive is soon ineffective so as to allow the marking to become loose and thereafter become lost. equipment creates a severe service problem for it is very difficult for anyone to trace the line involved, causing considerable lost time in the servicing of equipment, as well as the danger of a severe accident in case of mistaken identity between tubes carrying different materials at different pressures.

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925 Sterling Silver alloy compositions

A further object of the present invention is to provide silver alloys having the desirable properties of reduced fire scale, reduced porosity and oxide formation and reduced grain size relative to traditional sterling silver alloys whilst providing improved work hardening performance over the current firescale resistant alloys. Other objects and advantages of this invention will hereinafter become apparent.
With the foregoing and other objects in view, this invention in one aspect resides broadly in firescale resistant, work hardenable jewelry silver alloy compositions comprising:
The silver content of the alloy may be selected to be in the amounts commonly specified for grading silver. For example, the alloy may comprise from about 89 to 95% by weight silver. Preferably, the alloy contains a proportion of silver required for the graded application to which the alloy is to be put, such as 0.925 silver, that is at least 92.5% by weight, for sterling silver applications and at least 90% by weight for coinage.
The copper content of the alloy may be selected according to the hardness required of the cast alloy. For example, for manufacturing jewelers, 0.925 alloy, the copper content may advantageously be in the range of from about 2.0 to 3.0% by weight.
The zinc content of the alloy has a bearing on the colour of the alloy as well as functioning as a reducing agent for silver and copper oxides. Preferably, the amount of zinc used is selected to be between about 2.0 and 4.0% by weight. The silicon content of the alloy is preferably adjusted relative to the proportion of zinc used to provide the desired firescale resistance whilst maintaining a suitable colour commensurate with the zinc content of the alloy, and may for example advantageously fall within the range of about 0.15 to 0.2% by weight.

The germanium content of the alloy has surprisingly resulted in alloys having work hardening characteristics of a kind with those exhibited by conventional 925 Sterling Silver, together with the firescale resistance of the hereinbefore described firescale resistant alloys. In general, it has been determined that amounts of germanium in the alloy of from about 0.04 to 2.0% by weight provide modified work hardening properties relative to alloys of the firescale resistant kind not including germanium. However, it is noted that the hardening performance is not linear with increasing germanium nor is the hardening linear with degree of work.

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925 Sterling Silver alloy compositions

Sterling silver alloy compositions of exceptional and reversible hardness, and enhanced tarnish resistance
To make sterling silver, 925 Sterling Silver is alloyed with other alloys, such as 7.5% copper. While this results in sterling silver, the resulting alloy is relatively soft and tarnishable. As many will attest, conventional sterling silver tarnishes readily, and must typically be polished before use. The properties of sterling silver can be enhanced by increasing the hardness of the alloy, by making the hardness of such alloy reversible, and by providing enhanced tarnish resistance.
U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,810,308 and 4,869,757 discuss silver alloys with reversible hardness. However, these alloys contain high amounts of copper, and their tarnish resistance is not much better than that of conventional sterling silver alloys.

U.S. Pat. No. 4,973,446 discusses certain silver alloys that are designed to reduce fire scale. However, they only contain about 0.5% copper, and do not appear to show reversible hardness characteristics.

U.S. Pat. No. 5,037,708 broadly teaches that silver alloys may contain substantial amounts of palladium, which significantly increases the cost of the alloy.
The present invention broadly provides improved silver alloy compositions of exceptional and reversible hardness and enhanced tarnish resistance.

The improved compositions consist essentially of the following parts by weight: at least about 92.5% silver; about 4.4% to about 5.25% copper; about 0% to about 1.0% zinc; about 0.85% tin; about 0.05% to about 0.3% lithium; about 0.05% to about 0.5% silicon; about 0% to about 1.2% germanium; and about 0% to about 0.02% boron. The improved compositions exhibit a tarnish rate of not more than about 3.5 on a scale of from 0 to 5, where 0 is no tarnish and 5 is the tarnish rate of a sterling silver alloy having about 92.5% silver and about 7.5% copper when subjected for about six minutes to vapor of an aqueous solution containing about 650 parts per million of ammonium sulfide heated to a temperature of about 150° F. The improved compositions have an annealed hardness of about 60 VHN to about 70 VHN (i.e., when soft annealed by heating to a temperature of about 1200° F. in a non-oxidizing atmosphere, held at that temperature for about one hour, and then quenched in water). The improved compositions have a hardness of at least about 125 VHN when age hardened (i.e., by heating to a temperature of about 400° F., held at that temperature for about four hours, and then allowed to cool to room temperature).

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Sterling Silver Rings

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Acoustic dampening assembly for record player turntable

The lower the frequency, the more obvious the mechanical force becomes until it reaches a frequency too low to be heard. But even at such low frequencies, sufficient energy can be absorbed to rattle windows and shake walls as well as to create mechanical energy in the turntable platter, its main board, its base, and its supporting structure. Each of these parts vibrates with its own characteristic resonances in accordance with varying amounts of acoustical energy in the room.

These mechanical and acoustical vibrations travel through the equipment and coincide from all directions at certain key pathways to the tone arm. The result of such combination seems to be a compounded increase in the feedback to the tone arm at many key points which might be called “collision course vibrations”. These collision course vibrations are also generated within the mechanism itself, by and between the motor and the main bearing and the chassis and the subchassis, and are transmitted to and picked up by each end of the tone arm.

Such vibrations are commonly measured in the laboratory as rumble. Rumble is a low-pitched vibration or frequency that is caused by a mechanical vibration acting on the turntable and tone arm when the vibration occurs at the rotation frequency of the motor, the idler, the bearing, or the platter, or at some multiple of any of these frequencies. Flutter is a rapid pitch fluctuation in reproduced music which is caused by pulsations or changes of the turntable speed, i.e., a rapid variation from constant rotational speed. When flutter occurs at a low rate, it is called “wow”, suggesting the characteristic sound it imparts to steady musical tones. When it occurs at higher rates, the effect is of a “gargling” or roughness. Buy wow mounts and flutter are usually reported as a combined flutter measurement which is weighted to emphasize the most objectionable flutter rates at around 5-10 Hz. This combined flutter measurement is usually specified in hundredths of a percent of perfect accuracy with 0.03% being a typically good figure.

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Clear plastic pipe is the product of synthetic resin

Clear plastic tube is the product of synthetic resin additive processed by melt molding. Additives plasticizer, stabilizer, filler, lubricant, coloring agent, ultraviolet absorbent, modifier.

Commonly used clear plastic tube: hard polyvinyl chloride pipe (PVC-U), high density polyethylene pipe (PE-HD), cross-linked polyethylene pipe (PE-X) random copolymerized polypropylene pipe (PPR pipe), polybutylene pipe, engineering plastics acrylonitrile – butadiene – styrene copolymer (ABS) etc..

Characteristics of plastic pipe material composition determines the plastic pipe. The main advantage of plastic pipe:

(1) can be naturally curved or have the cold bending property, can use coil supply mode, reduce the number of pipe joint.

(2) the hydraulic performance, pipe wall smooth, small coefficient of resistance, not easy to fouling, tube circulation area does not change with time, pipeline blocking probability is small.

(3) compared with the metal pipe, small density, light material, transportation, convenient installation, flexible, simple, easy maintenance.

(4) the chemical stability is good, is not affected by the environmental factors and the medium in the pipeline components, corrosion resistance.

(5) small coefficient of thermal conductivity, low thermal conductivity, insulation, good energy saving effect.

The main disadvantage:

(1) poor mechanical properties, impact resistance is poor, poor rigidity and flatness is also poor, so the pipe clip and hanger is arranged with high density.

(2) poor fire resistance, the majority of plastic products and the combustion of combustible, thermal decomposition, can release toxic gases and smoke.

(3) thermal expansion coefficient, expansion compensation must be emphasized.

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World of WoW Gears upgrades and equipment line

The mage is considered pure DPS occupation, leveling rather painful, level 80 before the recommended Copy + task, after level 80 recommended the task of upgrading, why not row in this, because it may be discharged to the throne of the tides and the origin of the hall this cheating stuff, experience less poor also long and smelly, no invalid rate, even copy tasks are not, but in addition to the two other several can row the recommended single row to pick up the task done, quite a lot of experience. And now 80~85 level upgrade experience and was cut by 50%, task is very easy, 86~90 still task + interspersed with copy of the task, not deliberately row of the task, the experience is very much, the faster the relative row

If you reach level 90, go to pick up some eternal Island 496 equipped with a single equipment, but these attributes, only to hold loading, the actual effect is inferior to 483 random this equipment, then to make a rare and strange and Thor Island, pick up a good luck charm, good luck charms can make you extra pickup time equipment when struck first collar, the random Team Magic Gushan treasure ~ Yongchun station after, each BOSS roll, two field BOSS gunboat and anger very is also, because these BOSS off equipment has been raised the probability of two, basically can be said to be out of equipment, not counting your good luck

It follows that mine electric throne,buy WoW Gears drop 502 equipment, lightning equipment swap rate is low, good luck charm exchange with 1000 coins in the eternal eternal Island, if you have eternal coins remaining can be changed several lost in my own want BOSS, see what equipment according to the current BOSS, shift+J can quickly open

25 people is a copy of a copy of the team, is generally the full level of access, including the former, because speed brush also to efficiency Mody, you have the words of a friend in addition to levels higher than you not to go, the other can enter at any time, the current Orgrimmar wasteland words about 540 is more secure, but recursion is called 560+

speed4game has rich experiences in the VCT (Virtual Currency Trading) industry. By August 2013, We have had 328, 252 precious members receiving 1,852,235,400 WoW Gold and other game gold, all that has been delivered successfully.

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Challenge Mode Season Ending Clarified

As previously reported, the nine Challenge Mode dungeons released with Mists of Pandaria will be shutting down at the end of the “challenge season,” widely speculated to be the pre-Warlords of Draenor “6.0” patch. Today, the Community Team offered some additional clarity on what the end of the season will look like in terms of rewards.

All CM achievements will turn into Feats of Strength.
Rewards like the “Undaunted” title and the Pandaren Phoenix mounts will become account-wide. More specifically, instead of only getting one mount on one character for a full rack of Silver Medal wins, all four mounts will be available to all characters on the account.
Folks who earn Gold will be able to repurchase pieces of their class-specific transmog armor sets after earning them, and if you’ve earned the teleport to an instance, you’ll get to keep it. (Flashy armor collectors and… folks that really like teleporting to esoteric places… GO TO.)
The realm best titles, though? GONE. Blizzard promises new titles in WoD, of course.

With the knowledge that Warlords will be released sometime in the fall, and that the pre-expansion patch typically predates the expansion by 2-4 weeks, players have probably got until mid-September to complete their challenge mode gold objectives. That said, CMs are challenging for a reason, and between iLvl-throttling and players taking breaks in the post-expansion lull, the opportunity to find or create a team competent enough to get Gold is getting shorter by the day.

In case you missed it, new BlizzPro contributor Malon provided this look into Challenge Modes a few days ago that may be of interest.
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